Microwave Transmission and Radio Waves | Telecommunications and Satellite Systems | Wireless Technology

The Main Components Of Microwave Transmission

The technique of transmitting information or power through radio wave is the technological technique known as microwave transmission. The radio waves carry wavelengths that are so small, they are measured in centimeters, that they are called microwaves. These devices are often used in point-to-point communication systems because of the small size of the wavelength. Antennas are able to direct the small wavelengths through beams that are pointed at receiving antennas. This allows for microwave equipment that is close to similar equipment to share frequencies without there being a problem of interference.

The high frequency of these devices is an advantage because it allows the microwave band to store a sizeable amount of information. In fact, the band contains a bandwidth that is 30 times that of anything below it on the radio spectrum. A disadvantage is that the propagation is limited to line of sight, so it cannot pass around certain elements without trouble. This is contrary of what low-frequency radio waves are capable of.

This transmission usually involves point-to-point communication. To elaborate: deep space radio, and satellite communications. The band may be incorporated into other uses such as sensor systems, radio navigation, radars and radio astronomy.

This transmittal is most successful over line-of-sight links. In any other form of propagation, there are obstacles to overcome. In comparison to other, lower, frequencies, this form of transmission has a notable bandwidth. Nonetheless, the atmosphere can impact the success of the transmittal. Factors such as pressure, humidity, temperature, rain, snow and hail, mist and fog, sand storms, and clouds can play a role. The transfer of power or information is commonly conducted over wireless systems. For example: communications satellites allowing one-way and two-way telecommunication.

These structures are able to navigate through the narrow beams, to their destination because of a device called the parabolic antenna. This antenna uses a parabolic reflector. This device must be of a greater size than the wavelength of the radio waves. Typically the wavelength is short making it possible for reasonably-sized dishes to be utilized.

The whole idea behind this technology for transmittal developed after World War II. Following the war, high-powered microwave emitters, also known as cavity magnetrons, were developed. Nowadays, these systems offer a phased array transmitter. Overall, they are electrically steered, easy to scale, and use no moving parts. Though they are considered less efficient.

Radiation is a primary concern of many people when it comes to this type of transmittal. Generally these devices are associated with the high levels of radiation they are presumed to release. These power transmission systems; however, have a low intensity of the rectenna, which is supposed to make them less of a hazard.

This type of transmission is a common method for the process of transferring energy to the surface of Earth from in-orbit source or solar satellites. In some instances, MPT is proposed for orbital lift off of space ships. This technology does have a low efficiency of light generation, which shies some people away from using the system. Nonetheless, wireless power transmission, through this technology, is proven to work. Since the 1970s, experiments have been performed to prove it.

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